Have you been struggling to function and get through each day? Do you feel moody, flat, and unable get motivated? Have you lost interest in the activities you used to enjoy. Have your appetite or sleeping patterns changed for no reason? If you have experienced some or all of these symptoms over an extended period of time, you may be suffering from depression.
We have all heard of depression. Many of us know someone who suffers from it. Isn’t treatment just a matter of seeing the doctor and getting on an anti-depressant? Well, yes and no. Antidepressants may be effective in treating depression if the correct medication and dosage are prescribed. But many people are still challenged with depression even when they are taking anti-depressants.
Meta-analyses have shown anti-depressants to be no more effective than a placebo; while the side-effects of such drugs can be unbearable, and coming off them is often associated with difficulties and withdrawal symptoms.
Thankfully, there is a better solution.
As with many other conditions, the ‘depressed brain’ isn’t operating effectively and therefore won’t change because of a medication. The brain only changes by being trained to operate differently. Depression has been shown to have a neurological basis and it therefore needs a neurological solution.
No two brains are alike, therefore no two depressed people will have the exact same neurological pattern. The Brain Training Centre assesses your brain to pinpoint the exact areas causing your depressed state. During the training phase we help your brain to get out of it’s ‘stuckness’. You can’t do that alone. It requires accurate and expert assistance to correctly regulate and stabilise your mood long-term.
At the Brain Training Centre, we have assisted many of our valued clients to get relief from depression. It would be our pleasure to extend those services to you. Contact us today.
Effective treatment is available.
Evidence-based Research for the Effectiveness of Neurotherapy for Depression
Compelling research evidence exists that there is often a neurophysiological basis for depression, particularly in people with a family history of depression. Neuroscientists have discovered a particular brainwave pattern that allows us to identify individuals with a biological predisposition for developing depression. This biological marker appears to be very robust (Davidson, 1998a, b), having been replicated many times in brain mapping research utilizing quantitative electroencephalograms (QEEG) and other forms of neuroimaging. It has even been found in infants of mothers with a history of depression, compared with babies of women without a depression history (Dawson, Grofer Klinger, Panagiotides, Hill, & Spieker, 1992; Dawson, Grofer Klinger, Panagiotides, Spieker & Frey, 1992).
The left frontal area of the brain is associated with positive emotions and approach motivation, which is a desire to be involved with other people. The right frontal area of the brain is more associated with depression and fear, accompanied by motivation to withdraw from and avoid other people. When there is more slow brainwave activity in the left frontal area, this part of the brain is more inactive and the right frontal area is more dominant. Such a person is predisposed to become depressed more easily, to withdraw from other people, and to be anxious. This may occur because of heredity (family history) or because someone has had a concussion or mild head injury in the left frontal area which produced the slowing.
Part of a brain map from two different people is reproduced below. The map on the left is from a person with a long history of depression. You can clearly see in the left frontal area (which is colored orange and yellow) that there is an excess of slow, alpha brainwave activity. This is the pattern that has been classically associated with a vulnerability to depression. In contrast, the brain map on the right displays how a relatively normal map would look, without any excess or serious deficit.
It is interesting that research has found that antidepressants do not correct the type of brainwave pattern that we see above on the left. Thus, medication treatment for depression appears to still leave intact the biological predisposition for becoming more easily depressed when unpleasant life circumstances come along. There is also new evidence that has found that on average, antidepressant medications only have an 18% effect over and above placebo effects (Antonuccio, Danton, DeNelsky, Greenberg, & Gordon, 1999; Kirsch, Scoboria, & Moore, 2002; Kirsch & Sapirstein, 1998), and medication may only be mildly effective in treating anxiety as well (Antonuccio et al., 1999). In contrast, we know that psychotherapy for depression compares favorably with medication in short-term follow-ups (DeRubeis, Gelfand, Tang, & Simons, 1999) and appears to be superior in long-term follow-ups (Antonuccio, Danton, & DeNelsky, 1995; Hollon, Shelton, & Loosen, 1991).
Neurofeedback treatments for depression (Baehr, Rosenfeld, & Baehr 1997, 2001; Hammond, 2000, 2004) appear very promising not only in bringing relief from depression, but in modifying the underlying biological predisposition for becoming depressed. Neurofeedback focuses on retraining the brain, for example, reversing the frontal brainwave asymmetry, with the goal of producing an enduring change that does not require people to remain on medication indefinitely. Training often requires about 20 to 22 sessions.
Written by D. Corydon Hammond, PhD Professor & Psychologist, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation University of Utah School of Medicine.
EVIDENCE-BASED RESEARCH FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUROTHERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION.
Antonuccio, D. O., Danton, W. G., & DeNelsky, G. (1995). Psychotherapy vs. medication for depression: Challenging the conventional wisdom with data. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 26, 574-585.
Antonuccio, D. O., Danton, W. G., DeNelsky, G. Y., Greenberg, R. P., & Gordon, J. S. (1999). Raising questions about antidepressants. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 68, 3-14.
Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (1997). The clinical use of an alpha asymmetry protocol in the neurofeedback treatment of depression: Two case studies. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), 10-23.
Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (2001). Clinical use of an alpha asymmetry neurofeedback protocol in the treatment of mood disorders: Follow-up study one to five years post therapy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(4), 11-18.
Davidson, R. J. (1998a). Affective style and affective disorders: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Cognition & Emotion, 12, 307-330.
Davidson, R. J. (1998b). Anterior electrophysiological asymmetries, emotion, and depression: Conceptual and methodological conundrums. Psychophysiology, 35, 607-614.
Dawson, G., Grofer Klinger, L., Panagiotides, H., Hill, D., & Spieker, S. (1992). Frontal lobe activity and affective behavior of infants of mothers with depressed symptoms. Child Development, 63, 725-737.
Dawson, G., Grofer Klinger, L., Panagiotides, H., Spieker, S., & Frey, K. (1992). Infants of mothers with depressed symptoms: Electroencephalographic and behavioral findings related to attachment status. Development & Psychopathology, 4, 67-80.
DeRubeis, R. J., Gelfand, L, A., Tang, T. Z., & Simons, A. D. (1999). Medications versus cognitive behavior therapy for severely depressed outpatients: Mega-analysis of four randomized comparisons. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1007-1013.
Hammond, D. C. (2000). Neurofeedback treatment of depression with the Roshi. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 45-56.
Hammond, D. C. (2004). Neurofeedback treatment of depression and anxiety. Journal of Adult Development. (in press).
Hollon, S. D., Shelton, R. C., & Loosen, P. T. (1991). Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 59, 88-99.
Kirsch, I., & Sapirstein, G. (1998). Listening to Prozac but hearing placebo: A meta-analysis of antidepressant medication. Prevention & Treatment, 1, Article 2. Available online at:http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume1
Kirsch, I., Moore, T. J., Scoboria, A., & Nicholls, S. S. (2002). The emperors new drugs: An analysis of antidepressant medication data submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Prevention & Treatment, 5, Article 23. Available online at: http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume5/pre0050023a.html.
Kirsch, I., Scoboria, A., & Moore, T. J. (2002). Antidepressants and placebos: Secrets, revelations, and unanswered questions. Prevention & Treatment, 5, Article 33. Available online at:http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume5/pre0050023a.html.
e trained? Comparing the literature on the use of EEG biofeedback/neurofeedback as an alternative or complementary therapy for attention deficit disorder (ADHD). Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 26(4), 20-56.
Strehl, U., Leins, U., Goth, G., Klinger, C., Hinterberger, T., and Birbaumer, N. (2006). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: A new treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 118, 1530-1540.
Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2010). Post WISC-R and TOVA improvement with QEEG guided neurofeedback training in mentally retarded: A clinical case series of behavioral problems. Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 41(1), 32-41.
Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2007). EEG neurofeedback treatment of patients with Down Syndrome. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 63-68.
Swingle, P. G. (2001). Parameters associated with rapid neurotherapeutic treatment of common ADD (CADD). Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 73-84.
Swingle, P. G. (1996). Sub threshold 10-Hz sound suppresses EEG theta: Clinical application for the potentiation of neurotherapeutic treatment of ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(1), 15-22.
Tansey, M. A. (1984). EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training: Some effects on the neurological precursors of learning disabilities. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85-99.
Tansey, M. A. (1985). Brainwave signatures–An index reflective of the brain=s functional neuroanatomy: Further findings on the effect of EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85-89.
Tansey, M. A. (1990). Righting the rhythms of reason: EEG biofeedback training as a therapeutic modality in a clinical office setting. Medical Psychotherapy, 3, 57-68.
Tansey, M. A. (1991). Wechsler (WISC-R) changes following treatment of learning disabilities via EEG biofeedback in a private practice setting. Australian Journal of Psychology, 43, 147-153.
Tansey, M. A. (1993). Ten-year stability of EEG biofeedback results for a hyperactive boy who failed fourth grade perceptually impaired class. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 18, 33-44.
Tansey, M. A., & Bruner, R. L. (1983). EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of 10-year old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 8(1), 25-37.
Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (1998). Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: Effectiveness in students with ADD. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 23(4), 243-263.
Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 137-162.
Tinius, T. P., & Tinius, K. A. (2001). Changes after EEG biofeedback and cognitive retraining in adults with mild traumatic brain injury and attention deficit disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 27-44.
Vachon-Presseau, E., Achim, A., Benoit-Lajoie, A. (2009). Direction of SMR and beta change with attention in adults. Journal of Neurotherapy 13(1), 22 – 29.
Valdez, M. (1985). Effects of biofeedback-assisted attention training in a college population. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 10(4), 315-324.
Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., & Gruzelier, J. (2003). The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75-85.
Wadhwani, S., Radvanski, D. C., & Carmody, D. P. (1998). Neurofeedback training in a case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 3(1), 42-49.
Walker, J. E., & Norman, C. A. (2006). The neurophysiology of dyslexia: A selective review with implications for neurofeedback remediation and results of treatment in twelve consecutive patients. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(1), 45-55.
Warner, D.A., Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (2000). The efficacy of Barabasz’s alert hypnosis and neurotherapy on attentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Child Study Journal, 30(1), 43-49.
Williams, J. (2010).Does neurofeedback help reduce attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?Journal of Neurotherapy 14(4), 261-279.
Xiong, Z., Shi, S., & Xu, H. (2005). A controlled study of the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 25(3), 368-370.
All articles, documents and publications mentioned by or linked by this site or hosted at this site have been provided by The International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) as a public service. There is absolutely no endorsement by ISNR of any statement made in any of these documents, articles, or publications. Expect to see differences of opinion between authors. That is the essence of free and open scientific study.